Blockchain is a continuous chain of blocks with different data, where amending the last block will not be a problem. However, no previous blocks can be amended, because the hash of the previous block is recorded into each next one.
Introduced in 2008, Bitcoin was the first to use blockchain technology. Various platforms have been developed so far to reduce the time of the transaction to hundredths of a second, cut transaction costs, etc.
The blockchain technology dates back to 2008, when Bitcoin was released. This was the first generation consisting of a coin and based on Proof of Work (PoW).
The second generation, blockchain 2, was based on the use of tokens such as Ethereum and the ecosystem of their solutions. The big disadvantage of this blockchain generation was the low transaction speed and energy efficiency.
The next blockchain generation addressed issues regarding transaction speed and scaling using various mechanisms. Solana is a 3rd generation blockchain founded in 2017.
In the next generation (4th), they took the best and upgraded: ultra-fast transaction confirmation, agreement.
Relictum Pro is the 5th generation blockchain. It contains all the best from previous versions along with new features. The infinite distribution registry is able to work simultaneously with the smart contract system. Up to 80% of a human’s entire life can be described through them. Blockchain was founded in 2019.
Solana and Relictum Consensus
It should be understood that each blockchain has its own system and rules for approving transactions that occur on the network. A special Proof-of-History (PoH) consensus – a blockchain synchronization algorithm or decentralized clock – was created in Solana. This was required to know exactly when a particular transaction was carried out and to compare the time of request receipt.
This is how it works in Solana:
- There is a ready schedule for validator nodes (Leader Schedule). All their actions are synchronized in each block of the network.
- Time is measured in PoH hashes. In other words, the entire schedule is based on this consensus.
- Next, some Solana validator node becomes the leader. Its “leading” time is from 0 to 1,000 Proof-of-History hashes. Accordingly, the next time will be from 1,001 to 2,000 hashes, etc.
- Blockchain transactions are delivered to the leader, which verifies them.
- After that, the transaction goes to 2 validator nodes and gets verified again, but not by them.
- The next step is to send it further across the network.
There is a clear schedule, where the validator knows exactly when it will become the leader. This means that things are calculated quite simply in this algorithm.
Relictum Pro is a new version of the consensus algorithm, similar to the Solana blockchain – Proof-of-Tsar (PoT). The trick is that the network regenerates every 0.5 seconds, which means that the nodes are reconnected in less than a second. This is how it looks like:
- The network node is randomly selected (everything is automated and unpredictable) to become the Tsar.
- Several nodes are Generals, i.e. they obey to the Tsar (like validators in Solana).
- The entire action is taken among them: the Generals collect and transmit transactions above (to the Tsar), and the selected master node processes the transactions and sends them back along the chain.
- After the Generals, the data are sent further.
The main difference from the Solana blockchain is that the selection of the Leader and Generals is an automatic and chaotic process. The same node cannot be the Tsar first and the General next or have the same role 2 times in a row. The main difference from the Solana blockchain is that it is impossible to predict who will become the leader (Tsar). As a result, collisions of double spending and other parasitic events are eliminated. The unique PoT architecture allows to improve performance by increasing the number of nodes.
Let’s compare blockchain data by other characteristics and throughput.
Transactions per second
100,000 (already achieved) /
1,000,000 (real value at full-scale launch)
60,000 (in tests) /
700,000 (in theory)
Network fill (speed)
0.5 to 1 sec
From 10 minutes
Consensus (main in the work)
Proof of Tsar (PoT)
Proof of Stake (PoS), Proof of History (PoH)
0 $ (In the next consensus update, there will be a dynamic commission approximately equal to $0.0001)
The use of the 5th generation blockchain Relictum Pro is a new opportunity not only for the cryptocurrency market, but also for human activities in many industries.
Technical History of Attacks
Relictum Pro has never stopped during its existence. Any attacks on the blockchain were 100% repelled using the security tools. Users have never even felt any changes in the operation.
However, the same cannot be said about Solana. In 2022 alone (as of May 2), the blockchain experienced the 7th failure due to bots attacking the network. On the night of April 30 to May 1, there were practical problems and interruptions with transactions in Solana. Four million transactions per second from NFT-creating bots overloaded the entire network; validator nodes fell out of the PoH consensus. The main network restarted only after almost 7 hours.
This information can be easily checked on the official website status.solana.com, where the technical data is posted. It is easy to trace outages and interruptions in different periods of time, if necessary. The network stopped for 2 hours and 42 minutes on April 30 and for 5 hours and 31 minutes on May 1 due to the Mainnet beta shutdown.
Transactions did not go through as a result of regular attacks and network shutdowns, and users were confused. Indeed, the Solana blockchain is quite vulnerable, as clearly demonstrated by its history of failures. Partial outages of 8-29 hours are not uncommon for 2022. By the way, the SOL coin, the internal blockchain cryptocurrency, is also falling against this background.
Despite various challenges, Solana remains one of the largest and most used blockchains. However, Relictum Pro is ready to take the work to the next level.